PUBLIC SECTOR, TRANSPORT & MOBILITY, Efficient and clean transport
References are provided regarding 3 electric car-sharing schemes:
- Share‘n go
- E car-sharing in the city of Padua
Who needs to act?
As for all car-sharing schemes, these can be created and run by private operators and/or by public agencies (e.g. public transport companies, mobility agencies, utilities) with an agreement with city councils.
Who is affected?
The service can be offered to all city users (resident population + visitors). Additionally, large organizations (e.g. enterprises, hospitals and other public institutions with significant mobility flows) may get special agreements to replace their fleets to a lesser or greater extent.
When compared to traditional car-sharing schemes, electric car-sharing responds to mobility needs - typically in urban environments - adding the zero (local) emissions element to the advantages provided by other car-sharing solutions.
Operational schemes can be station-based (point to point) or free-floating (whereby vehicles can be picked up and returned anywhere within the operational area, to be preferred in an urban environment).
Among the most relevant management issues, is the vehicle retrieval system, particularly for free floating schemes, for vehicles left in more peripheral areas to be made available in sectors of the operational area where demand is normally higher.
Because of the fuelling system, there is a need for charging stations (slow/fast charging) and dedicated parking spaces. This is normally the object of negotiations with municipality and/or utilities. Local regulations are a major lever for the success of the operation. Free access to traffic limited areas in city centres is a major plus. The scheme works well in an intermodality frame. Besides e-cars, the scheme may apply also to e-scooters and e-vans.
Overall investment to launch the scheme is quite high.
Investments for the purchase of vehicles and running costs (incl. maintenance, insurance, etc.) can be born entirely by the private investor, directly or indirectly by public institutions or it can be shared.
The charging & parking infrastructure is normally the object of negotiations.
Public authorities can/should have an exemplary role and may get beneficial rates under certain conditions (e.g. fleet sharing). For instance, the city council may grant access to restricted areas and support the installation of charging infrastructure under beneficial conditions
Return of investment
Return on the investment in the mid-term.
Reduction in infrastructure and vehicles' costs as the technology matures is going to have significant impact in coming years.
Other resources to be used
CIVITAS Insight 05 - Car sharing: New forms of vehicle use and ownership
CIVITAS Insight 13 - E-mobility: From strategy to legislation
CIVITAS Insight 19 - E-mobility: Make it happen through SUMPs!
Operating schemes, conditions of use, key success factors
Share’N Go offers a zero-impact, free-floating electric car-sharing service, priced to be widely accessible and aimed at providing a sustainable solution to urban mobility needs in metropolitan areas. Share’N Go uses 100% electric, high-performance, 2-seater micro-cars produced by Xindayang (Geely Motor group), with over 100 Km autonomy and cutting-edge equipment. They can be accessed using a smartphone or a Share’ngo Card. In November 2016, the service is available in Milan, Rome, Florence. Share'ngo counts upon a net of more than 200 charging points and has more than 45.000 clients in Italy - 35.000 in Milan only. 34% of clients are women.
How it works
Registering: anyone over 18 with a valid driving licence can register online, providing their tax identification code and a credit card’s details. Registration costs €10 and includes a Share’ngo Card and the first half hour.
Costs: the standard fare is € 0.28 per minute when driving and € 0.10 per minute when the car is parked. It is possible to have a personalized fare based on individual mobility needs and habits and/or buy special packages to pay as little as € 0,10 per minute and € 6 per hour. The average fare is € 0.21 per minute.
Additional advantages: unlimited mileage per trip; free use for women from 1 to 6 in the morning.
Finding a car where and when you need it: to book a car, a registered user can use the Share’N Go’s App for iOS and Android or login onto the website. A map will show all available cars and their autonomy. Booking is free of charge and lasts 30 minutes.
Driving a minicar: to start driving, all the user needs is a click on his/her smartphone or swiping a Share’N Go card to open the car door, enter his/her PIN and turn the key.
Returning the car: the user can temporarily stop over and park the car to continue using it later or end the trip. In both cases he/she will need to press a ‘P’ (parking) button in the dashboard, select the appropriate option, leave the car and let it do the rest (there is no need to lock the doors, close the windows, pull the hand brake, etc. since the car will do this automatically). The user will not need to recharge the car.
Where you can go: in each city, an area (‘operational area’) is defined where users can end the trip. This includes free access to ‘Area C’ in Milan (limited traffic area with a congestion charge) and limited traffic areas in Rome and Florence. The cars can leave the operational areas but cannot be used on the motorways, in pedestrian areas and in bus and taxi lanes. Users can end the trip free of charge in pay and display car parks and in parking areas reserved to residents in city centres, however they cannot be parked in taxi ranks, loading bays, bus stops and parking spaces for disabled people.
Key success factors:
- A mature market in metropolitan areas with an appropriate population size and density;
- Awareness of necessarily high initial investment with a slow-growth scenario;
- Own purpose-developed IT system for user-vehicle and vehicle control interactions;
- Optimal cooperation conditions with Milan City Council:
- Interest in developing framework conditions fostering sustainable mobility solutions, favouring those with the lowest local impacts;
- Significant network of charging stations developed and owned by the council and operated by local utility available for use by car-sharing operator;
- Reward for very low impact service: electric car-sharing operator does not pay the standard fee per vehicle envisaged for traditional car-sharing – currently around € 1.200/year.
E-Vai offers a station-based, mostly electric car sharing service with unique features: it operates at a regional (and not urban) level, it is integrated with the regional railway service and available in the main regional airports. 90% of vehicles are electric and there are over 80 ‘Evai points’ (pick-up and release stations) in Lombardy. The fleet counts upon over 100 low-impact vehicles, each carrying 4/5 people. Electric vehicles include the following types and models: Renault Zoe, Citroen CZero, Mitsubishi i-Miev, Peugeot iOn, Panda berlina, Panda Van, Fiorino. Vehicles with endothermic engines include the following types and models: Fiat Panda Twin air, Citroen C3, Fiat Cinquecento, Fiat Panda.
How it works
Registration and costs: anyone over 18 with a valid driving licence and a passport or an identity card can register online or at some of the E-Vai points. Registration is free. Fees for electric vehicles are €5/hour and €60/day all inclusive. Fees for vehicles with endothermic engines are €2,40/hour and €28,80/day+ €0,48/Km. There are two user profiles:
- Gold: no initial fee per rental; minimum prepayment €50; payment methods: credit card, bank transfer, debit card, cash;
- Silver: €5 initial fee per rental; minimum prepayment €0; payment methods: credit card;
- Cars can be released at any station within the same city at no additional cost. They can be released at any station in lombardy with an extra €10 charge for stations outside the pick-up city boundaries, with the exception of drop-offs carried out in some suburban areas around milan where no additional fee or reductions apply.
Advantages: E-Vai offers a wide range of vehicles to be used at any time, including for short periods (as little as an hour). The whole transaction takes place online and vehicles are opened with an SMS. E-Vai stations are located in strategic locations throughout the region, particularly at train stations to allow low-impact inter-modality. There is no registration fee and the client only pays for the actual use of the vehicle. In many cities E-Vai vehicles are allowed to run on bus lanes, access traffic limited areas and park free of charge in pay and display car parks and dedicated parking areas (for buses, taxis, etc.). A shared vehicle replaces on average 6 private cars, reducing congestion and occupation of parking spaces. E-Vai only uses low-impact vehicles contributing to reduce environmental impacts.
Key success factors:
- Involvement of big institutional players (railway service operators, utilities, local authorities) in the realization of the scheme;
- Well distributed network of charging stations in strategic locations;
- Targeted communication in a market ready for take-up of e-mobility, particularly in medium-sized cities, facilitated by sharing and pooling schemes;
- User-friendly service and customer assistance.
Car sharing Padua
The City of Padua has been offering a station-based car sharing service since 2013 and is part of the ICS (Iniziativa Car Sharing) network supported by the Ministry of the Environment. The service is managed by APS Holding, in-house utility managing car parks for the city and, among others, a 1MWp PV plant for the production of electricity. The fleet - overall counting 18 vehicles, including Fiat 500 and 500L with bi-fuel gasoline and methane engines - has recently been increased, adding 5 electric cars (Renault Zoe). At present, there are 6 charging stations available. The Council supports the service allowing circulation of shared vehicles in limited traffic areas and on bus lanes.
Main steps of implementation
Typically, the city council decides to have a car-sharing scheme developed (and for example launches a public call). The entity providing the service develops a scheme and benefits from advantages provided by the council (free access to limited traffic areas, free parking, possibility to use bus lanes, etc.)
Short- and mid-term:
Reduced number of private cars in urban areas both coming from outside and owned by residents.
Reduced environmental and noise pollution.
Increased possibility for citizens, businesses and institutions to purchase/lease e-vehicles.
Mid- and long- term:
reduced need for parking spaces (land re-appropriation).
Contribution to SEAP & indicators
How to integrate in SEAP?
Can be included in a SEAP as an Action to reduce CO2 emissions.
Contribution to SUMP & indicators
Pollutants reduction (NOx, SOx, CO, etc.);
enhanced intermodality; reduced number of vehicles in urban areas; improved sustainable accessibility to city centres.
How to integrate in SUMP?
Dedicated measure responding to several objectives measured with the corresponding set of indicators.
The service needs to be easy to use and flexible to guarantee good customing.